15 Quick Tips Regarding Infertility
Primary infertility is the failure to conceive even once. Secondary infertility indicates previous pregnancy, but failure to conceive subsequently within one or more years of unprotected regular intercourse. Infertility may be due to a single cause in either you or your partner, or a combination of factors that may prevent a pregnancy from occurring or continuing. Infertility is complex and has multiple causes and consequences depending on the gender sexual history, lifestyle of the society and cultural background of people. Ayurveda is unique in that it emphasizes preconception reproductive health, elaborates on factors essential for conception and various pathologies associated with these factors and their possible management, thus paving the way for improving the overall health of the progeny. Ayurveda covers all the physical, mental, and spiritual aspects of human life, and hence, the description becomes more abstract.
There is a vast wealth of Ayurvedic scientific literature on how to protect preconception health, sustain and protect fertility. Reproductive health was a widely covered specialty in Ayurveda. Though vajikarana was mainly aimed at the male, a lot of importance was also given to the reproductive health of the female. Enabling a couple to conceive maintenance of the pregnancy till parturition and post partial measures are discussed in detail. There are descriptions of measures to regulate this natural phenomenon. Fortunately, there are many safe and effective therapies for overcoming infertility. These treatments significantly improve the chances of becoming pregnant. Description of Vandhyatva is available in most of the Ayurvedic classics, including Nidana (diagnosis), Samprapti (etiopathogenesis), Lakshana (symptomatology), Bheda (types) and Chikitsa (treatment). Proper functioning of four factors viz. Rutu, Kshetra, Ambu and Beeja are the prime requisites for Garbha (conception). Beeja, the most essential part among the four has been considered as Antahpushpa, i.e. ovum. A host of female and male conditions, environmental factors, lifestyle habits or unidentified factors has shown to contribute to infertility. For the achievement of conception and for better understanding of the entire process of fertilization, Sushruta (Pioneer of Ayurvedic surgery) has given an analogy i. e. germination of a seed.
DEPOSITION OF THE SPERMS IN THE UPPER VAGINA SHOULD BE INAPPROPRIATE TIME OF THE FEMALE CYCLE.:INFRTILITY
• Kshetra: Anatomically and physiologically adequate reproductive organs. The vagina must be healthy. Cervix and its secretion are also permitted to pass sperms. The ovarian duct must be patent and sufficient ciliary movement is present. The uterus must be capable of supporting implantation and fetal growth throughout pregnancy • Ambu: Proper nourishment to genital organs, adequate hormonal level and proper nutrition is required for genital organs. • Beeja: The adequate ovum & sperms and the female ovulation mechanism must be normal. The male must produce an adequate number of normal sperms. In practice, so many cases are seen, in which all the above factors are fulfilled, yet pregnancy cannot take place. This condition is known as idiopathic Vandhyatva. This condition can be explained by the ‘Atmaja’ and ‘Satvaja Bhavas’ of Sage Charaka described in Charaka Samhita (A Textbook of Ayurvedic medicine) Thus, any abnormality in these essential factors, cause ‘Vandhyatva’ (Infertility). Thus the ancient classical literature of Ayurveda emphasized the basic requirements for the process of fertilization giving importance to healthy sperm, ovum, uterus nutrition and the like. Understanding the causes of infertility requires a brief introduction to the biological aspects of fertility. It involves a complex set of coordinating biological processes all of which must work more or less perfectly. The infertility rate is high among women in urban areas. This may be due to lifestyle or conceiving at a later age due to various compulsions. Working women have high infertility rate. Today, around 15 percent of the Indian population, both male and female, are infertile. Though in general the percentage of male infertility is on the rise, it cannot be avoided that both men and women in cities are prone to infertility due to their working style. According to statistics, the percentage of male infertility has raised to 60 percent now against 40 percent in the 1980s.
For both men and women, reproductive health depends on the health of the shukra dhatu, or reproductive tissue. Man hormones that cause sperm to be produced act on the testicles. The testicles must be responsive to such hormones in order to begin or continue sperm production. Similarly, the prostate seminal vesicles and other glands must produce seminal fluid that is nourishing and protective of the sperm. In order to send the sperm out of his body a man must be able to obtain and sustain an erection until he can ejaculate inside the female. The female reproductive system also involves a complex set of coordinated biological processes. A woman must produce specific hormones that cause eggs to mature and ovulate. Her ovaries must be healthy and capable of responding appropriately to these hormonal signals. Once an egg is matured enough to leave the ovary it must travel down healthy, unblocked fallopian tubules. The cervical mucous must change consistency, to help facilitate the travel of sperm up the reproductive tract to the spot where it will meet the egg. In addition, her uterus must have a good lining and surface for the embryo to implant and start developing. Finally, her body must be able to recognize the developing embryo and not reject it as a foreign matter. The shukra tissue itself is created as part of a long chain of metabolic transformations, starting with the digestion of food and including the transformation of food to nutrient fluid, blood, muscle, fat, bone, bone marrow and finally, to shukra tissue. Healthy shukra tissue, then, according to ayurveda, depends on the health of all the other tissues in the body. Diet enhancing all the seven dhatus (brimhana) since the first six dhatus is the raw materials for the nurturing of the reproductive tissue also in turn paving the way for ojas. Concept of male and female infertility is vividly described in our ancient classics (Charaka Samhitha), Including the anatomy of the female genital system for example Artavavaha srotas. It covers the whole female reproductive tract and encompasses it as a structural and functional unit from the hypothalamus to the uterus. It represents not only the hormones related to reproduction at the physiological level, but also covers all the structures related to female reproductive organs at the anatomical level. It covers characteristics of fertile shukra dhatu, main causes of infertility like Bijopaghata-anatomical or quantitative abnormalities of sperm, Shukra sanchaya (deficiency in seminal fluid, Dhwajopaghata (defect in Penile function either erectile or ejaculatory, Jara (senility).Sushruthacharya the pioneer of Ayurvedic surgery has given anatomical descriptions of female reproductive system, different types of abnormalities of seminal secretions like ksheena (congenitally deficient in quantity),alpa (decreased quantity due to any disease), dushta (pathologies), visushka (decreased quantity and quality due to aging), Similarly, factors leading to female infertility are well described inby Charaka. Without ‘Vata Dosha’ the ‘Yoni’ never gets spoilt. ‘Vata’ is the prime causative factor of ‘Vandhyatva’ (Infertility). ‘Harita’ has described six types of ‘Vandhya’ (Female infertility) with special clinical features. (1) Kakavandhya -The woman who has one child, but second time is unable to conceived. (2) Anapatya – The woman who has no child or primary infertility. (3) Garbhasravi – The woman who has repeated abortion. (4) Mritvatsa – The woman who has repeated departed births. (5) Balakshaya – Infertility due to loss of ‘Bala’ (strength). (6) Unexplained – Infertility due to idiopathic cause.
CAUSATIVE FACTORS OF FEMALE INFERTILITY
• yonl Pradoshat: The word ‘Yon,’ refers to entire reproductive system Thus, under this heading, congenital or acquired disease of anatomic components of reproductive system e Vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes can be included. It includeS, Yonivyapada: All twenty Yonivyapada (gynecological disorders), If not treated properly cause infertility Injury to ‘Artays-ysho &otos’: ‘Artsva-vans Srotes mans organs related with the menstrual cycle, when damage by injury results in infertility Yonearths: ‘,towersha’ means any unwanted growth on cervica region produces inferti ity by destroying the menses
Garbhakooha belongs: Word IShange also refers to proapse of uterus or its retro disp acement, is one of the cause of inferti ity Shags sonkochs: During coitus with a girl before her menarche (very young gir), deep lacerations or tear of vulva and vagina may take pace Healed scan of these u cers may produce constncbon of vagina, thus, hamper proper penetration of penis dunng coitus resulting into incomplete coitus, a cause of infertl ity Sphegeta Mutratvs: ‘Seise ita mutratve in girls is also responsible for Vandhyatva• I it partial obstruction or spasm of urethra, for which the most common cause is gonorrhoeal urethritis, because gonococci causes inflammation of reproductive system along with unnary system Gorwxrheal sa pingius is very common cause oe inferti rty Utkolapto Yonl: Upward displacement of cervix in cases of retro flexion of uterus is one of the causes of inferti ity Adcharons Yoni Vyapata: Sushruta says that this disease is caused by excessive coitus. It appears to be ana ogous to vagina’ inflammation due to excessive coitus assooated with infertility MansIke Abhltapa (stress Induced infertility): Norma’ psychology of the Couple is very Important for achievement of pregnancy fear of doing sex, manta disharmony and infrequent coitus affect the fertility. Sosiadualeti: When in Ovum, the gene concerned with uterus Is damaged, the progeny becomes sterile Artava Swift The word ‘Artava’ refers to ovum, menstrual blood, and ovanan hormones Abnormality of ovum and ovarian hormones may produce infertility
• Aharadosha: Dietetic abnormalities COLAe infertrity in two wars’ By producing loss of ‘Dhotis’ (nutntion to the tissues) and that of ‘Dhatvagnr (Metabolism), thus they influence hormones Sy vitiating ‘Doohas’ which cause vanous gynecological disorders, ‘siding to infertility
• Vihara Dosha: Abnormal mode of life and suppression of natural urges aggravate ‘Doshas’, which produce various gyneco Nice abnormalities. Other than the supine posture of the women during coitus, discharge of semen on ‘Samirana Nadi’ or outside the vagina comes under defective practice In a’ these conditions probably semen is not proper y deposited Inside the vaginal canal’ Thus sperms fail to enter uterus causing infect rty
• *kale Yoga: The word -Ka’a• refers to period of age and Itutukala’ (ovulation period) both In adolescent girl and Old ladies due to premenarche and menopause stage respective ‘:y and before or after ‘Rutukea’ (ovulation period) due to absence and destruction of ovum respectively, the conception does not take place • Baia Kshaya: ‘Bala’ refers to physical strength and capacity to become Pregnant Here, infertility due to ‘Ba a kshaya’ (loss of strength) may be due to unknown origin or premature aging or any systemic disorder CAUSATIVE FACTORS FOR MALE INFERTILITY
AtIvyanrayat Over indulgence in sexual activity. Vyayainsats Over exertion, it may include any kind of physical exertion or strenuous mental efforts Avyayamat Over relaxation, laziness or spending very leisure life. Matinyanam du sonnet Eating over spicy, salted, sour, frozen foods, foods with low nutrition and lack of hygiene; also behavioural habits ‘Ike sleeping very late at night, hectic lifestyle leads to disparity of Rakta and Feta Dosha, ultimately causing Shukra kshaya i A deficit In Shukra Dhatu qualitatively and quantitatively Akale: It means having intercourse at inappropriate time; i.e. before desire,
- age specifically before age of 16 In females and 18 in that of mats, or beyond the age of 65-70 where the body faces genera Ised debility. Mother aspect exp ains having intercourse very frequently and many times (5-6 times) in
• day also leads to deb ity of Shukra dhatu Ayonau: Indu ging into sex in other than natural ways, I e Masturbation, on or anal sex, etc Maithunam Na CM Gachataha: Suppression of sexual urge The other essential causes are fear, stress, sorrow, tight clothing, working in a hot environment for long duration Smoking and alcohol consumption significantly affect virility In males Trauma to the genital organs, generalized debility, muscle weakness and stress can result in erectile dysfunction. Suppression of sexual urge, infection in the reproductive tract, or any kind of stricture can cause an obstructive pathology Eminent scientist Oushpa M. Bhargava, Chairman of the Drafting Committee for the Assisted Reproductive Technologies (Regulation) MI, 2013, In his interview to The Hindu In 2014 said, “Over 20 million couples In India are infertile. It Is • well-established fact that all over the world, between 10-15 percent of couples in a population are infertile. This has resulted in hospitals and private clinics with offers for ART services mushrooming all over the country. But In the complete absence of legislation, there is scope for malpractices.”